fatwa on fasting

122 religious inquiries on Ramadan and fasting answered by Imam Khamenei

Definition of Fasting

 

  1. Fasting in the holy Shari’ah (jurisprudence) of Islam is equal to that with the intention of obeying God; a person does not eat or drink and avoids other things, which will be elaborated on later, all day long (from fajr to maghrib: from dawn till after sunset, when the redness in the eastern sky is gone).

 

  • Different types of Fasting

 

1. From one perspective, there are four types of fasts:

 

  1. Obligatory (wajib) fasts, like fasts in the holy month of Ramadan;
  2. Supererogatory (mustahab) fasts, like fasts in the months of Rajab and Sha’ban;
  3. Reprehensible (makruh) fasts, like fasting on the day of Ashura;
  4. Prohibited (haram) fasts, like fasting on the day of Eid Fitr (the first of Shawal) or Eid al-Adha (the tenth of Zel-Hajja).

 

3. Obligatory (wajib) fasts

Obligatory (wajib) fasts consist of:

- Those of the month of Ramadan.

- Qada’ (carrying out or fulfilling a missed duty at a later time) of Ramadan fasts.

- The expiatory fasts performed as kaffarah (obligatory donation made to make up for a missed duty as expiation).

- Qada’ of parents’ fasts.

- Supererogatory (mustahab) fasts that become obligatory (wajib) due to a vow, an oath, or a swear.

- Fast on the third day of I’tikaf (an Islamic practice consisting of a period of staying in a mosque for a certain number of days, devoting oneself to worship).

- The fast replacing the sacrifice during the ceremony of Hajj (If a person performing Hajj (haji) cannot afford to make a sacrifice or cannot borrow money to sacrifice, he must perform ten fasts instead: three of which he performs during Hajj and the seven remaining when he returns home).

 

  • Fasting on the day of Ashura:

4. Is it allowed to fast on the day of Ashura?

Answer: It is reprehensible (makruh).

 

  • Fast of silence:

5. I have heard that performing fasts of silence is prohibited (haram), but some say it is permissible (halal) in case it is a vow. Is this true?

Answer: it is prohibited (haram).

 

  • Fast performed by someone’s wife and children:

 

6. One of the prohibited fasts is the fast performed by the wife if it causes trouble for fulfilling the rights of the husband, and the fast performed by offspring if it causes trouble or annoyance for the parents. Now, the question is, does this rule only apply to mustahab fasts, or does it also include wajib (obligatory) fasts for a person capable of performing it?

Answer: This is not applicable to wajib fasts.

 

  • Conditions that make fasting obligatory (wajib)

 

7. Fasting is wajib for individuals who are in the following condition:

- Adulthood

- Sanity

- Physical strength

- Conscious: not in an unconscious state

- Not traveling

- Not in a state of hayd (menstruation) or nifas (Postpartum period): fasting is not valid for women during menstruation and puerperal bleeding

- When fasting is not harmful to one’s health

- When fasting is not extremely difficult

 

  • Difficulty in observing fasts

Inability for fasting during early years of taklif

 

8. For a girl who has reached the age of taklif (who has nine lunar years or more and must observe the religious obligations) but is not able to fast due to her physical weakness, and cannot perform their qada’ (that must be made up for at a later time) till the next Ramadan, what duty applies to her?

Answer: Inability for fasting and doing qada’ due to weakness, and lack of physical strength, does not ruin the obligation for doing qada’. Qada’ of the missed fasts during Ramadan remain obligatory (wajib) for her to perform when she has the ability.

 

9. What is the duty of girls who have just reached the age of taklif (responsibility) but fasting is hard on them? Is the age of religious adulthood for girls at 9 lunar years complete?

Answer: As per consensus, religious adulthood of young girls occurs by completion of 9 lunar years. By this time, fasting is obligatory for them, and not fasting for some minor excuse is not allowed. However, if fasting is harmful to their health, or tolerating fasts causes extreme difficulty for them, they are allowed to break their fast.

 

10. If a 9-year-old girl who is obliged to fast due to religious obligation, but breaks her fast for the reason that fasting is too difficult for her, is it obligatory for her to do the qada’ of the fast (do the missed fast at a later time)?

Answer: Qada’ of the fasts of Ramadan that she has broken is obligatory for her.

 

11. I haven’t performed my fasts since religious adulthood (taklif) until the age of 12, due to physical weakness, what is my duty now?

Answer: It is obligatory to do qada’, of the fasts of Ramadan, missed since the age of taklif. In addition, if Ramadan fasts were broken deliberately, by your choice, and without valid excuses, kaffarah is also obligatory for you.

 

12. For a person who hasn’t carried out fasts of Ramadan at the early years of taklif[1], due to weakness and lack of physical strength, is only qada’ obligatory or both qada’ and kaffarah obligatory?

Answer: If they didn’t fast while fasting wasn’t extremely difficult for them, and they broke their fasts deliberately, in addition to qada’, kaffarah is also obligatory. However, if they didn’t fast because they feared that fasting could make them ill, only qada’ of the fasts are obligatory.

 

  • Breaking fasts due to difficulty during the day

 

13. If a person has a job (and cannot quit it) which makes fasting excessively difficult for him/her due to the hunger and thirst, and also very young individuals, for whom fasting is too difficult, can they break their fast from early morning, or do they have a different duty?

Answer: For the mentioned situations, they can break their fast when they find fasting too difficult, and they must perform qada’ for that day’s fast later.

 

 

Things that invalidate fasts:

 

14. There are 9 things that invalidate fasts [from which it is obligatory to refrain during the fast, from dawn to sunset]:

      1.         Eating and drinking.

      2.         Sexual intercourse.

      3.         Deliberately causing seminal emission (masturbation; al-’istimna’).

     4.         Deliberately ascribing something falsely to God or the Messenger (p.b.u.h.) or Ahlulbait (a.s.) (i.e. if he speaks or writes that God or the Messenger said one thing or ordered    another thing while he is aware that it is not true).

     5.         Inhaling a dense cloud of suspended dust (when it reaches the throat).

     6.         Fully submerging the head under water.

     7.         Deliberately remaining in the state of janabah or hayd (menstruation) or nifas (Postpartum period) until the dawn.

     8.         Enema using fluid.

     9.         Deliberately vomiting.

 

The nine elements will be elaborated with details and related duties in the following questions. [elements 4 to 6 invalidate fasts based on obligatory precautionary measures (wajib Ihtiyat)].

 

  • Eating and Drinking

Criteria for eating and drinking

15. If a fasting person eats or drinks deliberately and knowingly, their fast will be invalid; either if the thing they eat or drink is an edible, common food or drink or if it is inedible, like paper, cloth, or similar materials; either if it is in big or small amount, like a drop of water or a tiny bread crumb.  

 

  • Breaking fasts for the sake of a match

 

16. Is it possible to break one’s fast because of having a soccer match and extreme hunger and thirst during the match?

 

Answer: the situation described in the question is not a valid excuse for breaking the fast.

 

  • Breaking the fast due to hunger and thirst

 

17. If someone who fasts during Ramadan, does not get up for, thus misses the meal before dawn (suhoor), and as a result cannot continue the fast till sunset-- that is, they have an incident during the day and break the fast-- is kaffarah obligatory for them?

Answer: If they continue the fast until they find fasting extremely difficult for hunger and thirst and then break it, only qada’ is obligatory and no kaffarah is needed.

 

  • Eating after dawn (after call for morning prayer)

 

 18. If in Ramadan we get up for eating the meal before dawn, and later we learn that we had eaten after dawn, is our fast valid or do we have to perform qada’?

Answer: If they had investigated and ate based on the knowledge that it wasn’t dawn yet, their fast is valid, and there is no need to do qada’.

 

19. Since nowadays we use clocks for managing daily work, and in cities, because of high buildings, it is impossible to view the rising of fajr (dawn), if someone, relying on their clock which shows the hour 4, starts to eat, and then later learns that the clock had run out of batteries and it was actually 4:15; is the fast of that person valid?

Also if someone makes a mistake in reading the clock and eats after dawn, and understands the mistake later, is their fast valid?

Answer: In both cases, if relying on the clock, they were sure that it was still night, and later they learn it wasn’t true, their fasts are valid in Ramadan.

 

20. If someone learns it is already past dawn while eating, what is their duty?

Answer: They must take the food out of their mouth, and if they swallow it deliberately, their fast is not valid.

 

  • Directive concerning substances that return to mouth from stomach during fasting hours

 

21. Sometimes acid reflux might happen, that is sour substances come to the mouth from the stomach. Now if a fasting person has acid reflux, and swallows the substances deliberately or by oversight, what directive applies to their fast?

Answer: If after the substance reached their mouth, they swallow it deliberately, their fast is no longer valid; but by oversight, it does not invalidate the fast.

 

  •  Swallowing phlegm of head or chest during fasting hours

 

22. When I had a flu, I had some phlegm in my mouth that I swallowed, instead of throwing away; is my fast valid or no?

During Ramadan I was staying with some relatives; and because of embarrassment and shyness, I had to do tayammum (dry ablution) in place of an obligatory ghusl, and I didn’t do ghusl until near noon. This was repeated a few days. Are my fasts during those days valid or no?

Answer: Swallowing phlegm of head or chest does not invalidate fasts, but if it has reached the mouth area, based on obligatory precautionary measures (wajib Ihtiyat), one must avoid swallowing it. Not doing ghusl of janabat by dawn of the day one wants to fast and do tayammum instead, if done with a valid excuse, or if done in the last minutes when there is not enough time for ghusl, does not invalidate fasts and fasts with tayammum are valid. Otherwise, fasts on those days are not valid.

 

  • Swallowing the food remainders between teeth

 

23. One day during Ramadan I was fasting, but I didn’t brush my teeth. I then swallowed by oversight, not deliberately, the remaining food caught between my teeth. Do I have to do qada’ of that fast? 

Answer: If you didn’t know there was food remaining between your teeth, or you didn’t know that it could go to your throat, and also you didn’t swallow it deliberately, qada’ is not obligatory for you.

 

  • Tooth picking

 

24. What is the directive concerning tooth picking after eating for those who want to fast the next day?

Answer: Tooth picking after eating is not obligatory for those who want to fast, even if they know that the food remaining between teeth can get into the throat; and if food gets into throat after that by oversight, their fast are valid. But if they are sure that without tooth picking food gets into their throat, it is obligatory for them to pick their teeth, and if they don’t and some food gets into their throat, their fast is invalidated based on obligatory precautionary measures (wajib Ihtiyat). 

 

  • Tooth brushing with toothpaste 

 

25. Is tooth brushing with toothpaste during fasting hours problematic (invalidates fast)?

Answer: No it is not problematic. But it is necessary to prevent swallowing the saliva mixed with toothpaste and water. 

 

  • Using dental floss

 

26. What is the directive for using dental floss--which contains fluoride and mint flavor--during fasting hours?

Answer: If saliva is not swallowed it is not problematic.

 

  • Chewing gum and sucking frankincense

 

27. What is the directive on using chewing gum and sucking on frankincense while fasting?

Answer: It is no problem provided that nothing enters the throat, but sucking frankincense invalidates fast.

 

  • Invalidating fasts by others’ insistence

 

28. If while fasting, my mother makes me eat or drink, is my fast invalid?

Answer: Eating and drinking invalidates fasts, even if it is done as a result of someone else’s demand or insistence.

 

  • Forced to do things that invalidate fast

29. If something is put in someone’s mouth by force or if his head is submerged under water by force, is his fast invalidated? If he is forced to invalidate his fast, for example, he is told that if he doesn’t break his fast, they will damage his property or his body, and he eats to avoid the damage, is his fast valid?

Answer: The fast of a fasting person is not invalidated if something gets in to their throat involuntarily or if his head is submerged under water involuntarily. But if he does something that invalidates fasts due to someone else forcing him, his fast is invalidated.

 

  • Directive concerning eating or drinking by oversight

 

30. If someone who is fasting eats something by oversight, is it obligatory to remind them?

Answer: No it is not obligatory to remind them.

 

  • Necessity of drinking water for fasting pilots and flight attendants

 

31. If the airplane flies high for a long time and the flight lasts for two hours and a half or three hours, the flight attendants and the pilots need to drink every 20 minutes in order to keep balanced, in this case is it obligatory on them to do the qada and kaffarah of Ramadan fasts?

Answer: If fasting is detrimental to their health, it is permissible for them to break their fasts by drinking water and do qada’ later; in this situation kaffarah is not obligatory on them.

 

  • Rinsing the mouth and gargling by water during fasting hours

 

32. If a person while fasting, rinses their mouth in order to reduce thirst and spit out the water and nothing gets into their throat, what rule applies to them?

 

Answer: In the mentioned situation, it is not problematic.

 

33. Is it obligatory to spit three times, after rinsing the mouth--for ablution or other purposes--while fasting in Ramadan?

Answer: This is not obligatory. What is obligatory is to pour all the water out of the mouth; if they are sure that no water is left in mouth, nothing more is required as obligatory.

 

34. What is the directive concerning gargling for a person who fasts?

Answer: If while gargling, water gets into throat, fast is invalidated.

 

  • Sticking one’s tongue out during fasting hours

 

35. Putting one’s saliva out of mouth and putting it back again inside mouth invalidates fast. Does the same rule applies to sticking one’s tongue out of mouth; that is if for any reason someone sticks their tongue out, is their fast invalidated?

Answer: It does not damage the validity of fast.

 

  • Feeling of having sugar in mouth while fasting

 

36. When in Ramadan, we go to sugar manufacture we feel like sugar has entered our mouth, is our fast invalidated?

Answer: the mere feeling that sugar has entered your mouth, or even if sugar really enters the mouth, until it is not swallowed, does not damage the validity of fast.

 

  • Sexual intercourse

Sexual intercourse while fasting

 

37. Can a man who cannot fast have sexual intercourse with his wife who fasts?

Answer: No it is not permitted.

 

- Foreplay with the spouse while fasting

 

38. When a man has foreplay with his wife during the day in the month of Ramadan, does it invalidate his fast?

Answer: As long as it does not result in ejaculation, his fast is not affected.

 

- Sexual intercourse of husband and wife while fasting

 

39. If a husband has sexual intercourse with his wife in Ramadan and the wife also agrees to it, what directive applies to it?

Answer: For each of them the rule of deliberate breaking of fasts applies. That is, in addition to qada', kaffarah is also obligatory on both of them.

 

- Sexual intercourse by forgetting

 

40. If someone has sexual intercourse during fasting hours because they forget that they fast, is their fast invalidated?

Answer: If they forget that they fast and have sexual intercourse their fast is valid. But at any instant that they remember they must stop; otherwise their fast is not valid.

 

- Remaining on janabat until the morning adhan (fajr)

 

41. The person who is in state of janabat at a night of Ramadan must perform ghusl before the morning adhan. If such person (junub) deliberately does not do ghusl until that time, their fast is invalid. This rule is true for qada' of Ramadan fasts (even if done unintentionally).

 

42. If a person becomes junub in a night of Ramadan and doesn't do ghusl until morning adhan unintentionally, for example, they become junub in sleep and they sleep until after the morning adhan, their fast is valid.

 

43. A person who becomes junub while awake (not asleep) or is awakened after becoming junub and knows that if they go to sleep, they won't get up before the morning adhan (call for prayer, fajr) to do ghusl, it is not allowed to sleep before doing ghusl. If they sleep and don't do ghusl before the morning adhan their fast is invalid. However, if they think they will get up before the morning adhan for ghusl, and has the decision to do ghusl, but they don't wake up, their fast is valid. But if they sleep again and don't wake up before adhan, they should perform qada' for that day.

 

44. A person who has to do ghusl at a night of Ramadan, if he cannot do ghusl, due to lack of enough time before adhan, or water being detrimental to their health or a similar reason, they should do tayammum in place of ghusl.

 

45. If during fasting hours, someone becomes junub in sleep, their fast is valid.

 

46. If someone who fasts during the day of Ramadan and other days when they fast, becomes junub in sleep, after getting up, they don't have to do ghusl immediately.

 

47. A woman who is clean after menstrual bleeding and has to do ghusl and also a woman who is clean after nifas (bleeding after delivery) and ghusl is obligatory on her, if she postpones ghusl till the morning adhan of the Ramadan day, her fast is invalid.

 

48. A woman who during fasting hours has her menstrual bleeding or a delivery, her fast is invalid.

 

 - Deliberate janabat at a night of Ramadan when ghusl is not possible

 

49. A person who doesn't have water in their disposition, or for other reasons other than lack of enough time, cannot do ghusl of janabat, is it permissible for them to deliberately make themselves junub via a halal (permitted) act?

Answer: If their duty is to do tayammum, and after becoming junub, they have enough time to do tayammum, this is permitted.

 

- Last minute Tayammum (when there is not enough time for ghusl) by deliberately postponing ghusl

50. Can a person who gets up before the morning adhan in a state of ihtilam (having discharge in sleep) avoid doing ghusl until near adhan and then do tayammum instead of ghusl?

Answer: if they postpone ghusl until there is not enough time for doing it before adhan, they have committed a sin. However, in this case, they should do tayammum before adhan and their fast is valid.

 

51. If a junub person postpones ghusl deliberately in Ramadan until there is not enough time for doing it before adhan, and does tayammum before adhan, what rule applies to their fast?

Answer: their fast is valid. Though in the situation as described a sin is committed.

 

- A fasting person neglecting the ghusl of janabat before the morning adhan

 

52. If someone forgets to do ghusl of janabat for a Ramadan fast or other fasts and remembers during fasting hours, what duty is on them?

Answer: If in a Ramadan fast, ghusl of janabat is forgotten during the whole night (before dawn) and the person is still in state of janabat in the morning, their fast is invalid. Similarly, this rule is true for qada’ of Ramadan fasts, too. But in other fasts, the fast is not invalidated by this. 

 

- Inadvertence about ihtilam before the morning adhan

 53. In Ramadan, a person wakes up before the morning adhan and doesn’t notice they have become muhtalim (i.e. they had discharge during sleep) and goes to sleep again. Then, they wake up at the time of the morning adhan, and learn about their janabat, certain that it has happened before adhan, what rule applies to their fast?

Answer: If they don’t notice their ihtilam before the morning adhan, their fast is valid.

 

- Doubting about ihtilam[2] in a night of Ramadan

 

54. If a mukallaf[3] in a night of Ramadan doubts before dawn if he has become muhtalim, but neglects his doubt and sleeps again. Then when he wakes up after the morning adhan, he notices that he has been muhtalim since before fajr (dawn) what rule applies to him?

Answer: If after the first time he wakes up, he doesn’t see signs of ihtilam, but he only doubts that it could have happened, then he sleeps till after adhan, his fast is valid. Even if after that it is known that ihtilam happened before the morning adhan.

 

- Fasting in case of remaining on janabat till the morning adhan

 

55. If a person, due to some problems, remains on janabat till the morning adhan, is it permitted for them to fast on that day?

Answer: Except for Ramadan fasts and their qada’, it is permitted. But for Ramadan fasts, there are details: if he has a valid excuse for avoiding ghusl, tayammum is obligatory on him. If he doesn’t perform tayammum, his fast is invalid. 

 

56. Is it permitted for a person in state of janabat to do ghusl of janabat after sunrise and observe qada’ or mustahab fasts?

Answer: if he deliberately remains on janabat till dawn, Ramadan fasts and their qada’ are not valid. However, for mustahab fasts, it is not a problem.

 

- A person in state of janabat sleeping till after the morning adhan

 

57.  A mukallaf wakes up in a Ramadan night before the morning adhan and learns that they have become muhtalim, then sleeps again before dawn, hoping that they will get up before fajr for doing ghusl. He then remains in sleep till after the morning adhan, and postpones ghusl till the noon prayer and after that performs dhuhr and asr prayers. What rule applies to the fast on that day?

Answer: In the situation mentioned, which is the first sleep, the fast is valid. But if he [wakes up and] sleeps again and doesn’t wake up till morning, qada’ is obligatory for that day.

 

58. During last Ramadan, one night ghusl of janabat became obligatory for me, and when I woke up, I thought I would wait till there is not enough time for ghusl and I would do tayammum instead. But I slept over [and could not perform tayammum before fajr]. What is my duty?

Answer: A person who has become junub (to have seminal discharge) while awake, or has wakened after becoming junub in sleep and knows that if he goes back to sleep he will not wake up to perform ghusl before fajr--is not allowed to sleep before performing ghusl. If he goes to sleep and does not wake up before fajr to perform ghusl, his fast is invalid. However, if he thinks he will possibly wake up before fajr to perform ghusl and has the intention to perform ghusl, but sleeps late, his fast is valid. But if he goes back to sleep and does not wake up until morning, he has to do qada of the fast.

 

  • The time of the morning: adhan arriving during obligatory ghusl

 

59.    If a person in the state of janabat gets up just before the morning adhan and starts doing ghusl, but before he can finish the ghusl, the time of the morning adhan comes, what rule applies to his fast?

 

Answer: If based on knowledge or probability that he has enough time for ghusl, he started to do ghusl, his fast is valid.

 

60. If I start to do ghusl before the morning adhan and while doing ghusl, the time of adhan comes, (for example, I am washing my head and neck or the right part of the body, when the adhan starts) is my fast valid?

 

Answer: If you believed that you had enough time for ghusl, your fast is valid.

 

  • Avoiding ghusl and staying on janabat because of embarrassment

 

61. We live in a cold region with no bathroom or a place for taking a bath or shower. When in Ramadan we wake up in a state of janabat, considering that if young people do ghusl using a water bottle or the pool during the night before the people, it is regarded as bad and the water is cold at that time, what is our duty for the next day fast? Is tayammum permitted? In case we don’t do ghusl, what is the rule for breaking the next day of fast?

 

Answer: If the young man’s ghusl during the night is merely difficult or badly regarded, it is not a valid excuse in the Islamic law. So if ghusl does not cause a serious problem (haraj) or is not detrimental to their health, it is obligatory in any possible way. In case of serious difficulty or detriment, they must do tayammum before dawn. By tayammum in place of the ghusl of janabat before dawn, their fast is valid. Without tayammum, their fast is invalid. However, imsak ( to stop eating by Fajr time) is obligatory: they must refrain from things that break the fast (muftirat).

 

62. Someone stayed the night somewhere as a guest during Ramadan, and at night he became muhtalim (had some discharge during sleep). Because he had no clothes with him, in order to evade the next day fast, he decided to go on to travel after dawn. Then after dawn, without eating, he sets off on a trip. The question is, does the decision for a travel omit the necessity for kaffarah?  

 

Answer: If he wakes up in a state of janabat and is aware of his janabat, and avoids ghusl or janabat before dawn, the mere decision of going on a trip at night or in the day is not enough to exempt him from paying the kaffarah.

 

63. During Ramadan I was staying with some relatives; because of embarrassment and shyness I had to do tayammum (dry ablution) in place of an obligatory ghusl, and I didn’t do ghusl until about noon. --This was repeated a few days afterward. Are my fasts during those days valid or not?

 

Answer: Not doing ghusl of janabat by the dawn of the day one wants to fast and do tayammum instead, if done with a valid excuse or if done in the last minutes when there is not enough time for ghusl, does not invalidate fast, and fasts with tayammum are valid. Otherwise, fasts on those days are not valid.

 

 

  • Ignorance of the obligation or the procedure of ghusl of janabat

 

  • Fasting while being ignorant of the obligation or the procedure of ghusl

 

64. A person who has reached the age of taklif was ignorant about the obligation and the procedure of ghusl. After some years (about ten years), they learned about taqleed and obligation of ghusl. What directive applies to his case? What is his duty regarding prayers and fasts during this period?

 

Answer: Qada’ of prayers performed in the state of janabat is obligatory on him. Also, qada’ of the fasts is obligatory if he knew he was in a state of janabat but was ignorant about the obligation of ghusl for junub required for fasting.

 

65. If someone fasts for some days without knowing that ghusl of janabat is a requirement for the validity of fasts, is kaffarah of those fasts obligatory on him or is qada’ of the fasts enough?

 

Answer: In the mentioned situation, qada’ is enough.

 

66. Due to ignorance, a young man, before the age of 14 and after that, engaged in masturbation (istimna’) causing seminal emission. But, he didn’t know that seminal emission results in janabat or that he was obligated to do ghusl (cleansing of the body) before performing prayers and fasting. What is his duty now? Is ghusl obligatory on him for the period that he masturbated and ejaculated? Are the prayers and fasts performed during this period in a state of janabat invalid and their qada’ obligatory?

 

Answer: For all those times he had seminal emission, if he hasn’t done ghusl yet, one ghusl of janabat is enough. He is required to do qada’ (make up for broken fasts) of all the prayers he is certain that he performed in a state of janabat. If the act of masturbation was carried out during Ramadan and the person was ignorant about the matter of janabat, his fasts are valid, and there is no need to do qada’ for them. However, if he knew about seminal emission and janabat but he didn’t know that for the validity of fasts ghusl was required, he is obligated to do qada’ of all the fasts performed in the state of janabat.

 

67. Is [the ability to do] jima (sexual intercourse) regarded as a sign of puberty, and by doing it, do religious duties become obligatory? If someone does it for some years without knowing, is ghusl of janabat obligatory for them? If they perform acts which require ghusl, like saying a prayer and fasting before doing ghusl of janabat, are the religious duties performed invalid and their qada’ obligatory?

 

Answer: The act of jima' (sexual intercourse) when no discharge or ejaculation occurs does not signal puberty. However, it causes janabat (impurity) and requires the person to do ghusl (ablution) once they attain puberty. Until one of the signs of puberty does not appear for someone, they are not adults based on Shariat, and they are not obligated to perform the religious duties. A person who becomes junub before the age of puberty, due to any sexual act, and then after the age of puberty performs prayers and fasts without ghusl, has to repeat their prayers. But in case they are ignorant about janabat, qada’ of fasts are not obligatory.

 

  • Fasting with invalid ghusl

 

68. I used to do ghusl of janabat by firstly washing the right part of my body, secondly my head, and finally the left part. I didn't investigate to learn about it. What rule applies to my prayers and fasts?

 

Answer: Ghusl done as explained is invalid and doesn't remove hadath (impurity requiring ghusl). Hence, prayers performed with this ghusl are invalid and their qada' is obligatory. But fasts observed with this ghusl if you were certain of the validity of ghusl in this procedure, and your remaining on janabat wasn't deliberate, are valid.

 

69. If ignorant about the sharia law, a person didn't respect the correct order while doing ghusl for a while, what rule applies to their prayers and fasts?

 

Answer: If ghusl is done in a manner that is regarded as invalid based on sharia’h, qada of prayers performed with that ghusl (with hadath akbar: major impurity requiring ghusl) are obligatory. But their fasts are valid if at that time they believed their ghusl was valid.

 

70. About two years ago, in risalat (a treatise on practical Islamic law) of some Marja’s (jurisprudent), I found the fatwa of Ayatollah Khamenei about respecting the order of washing left and right parts of the body while doing ghusl as a wajib ihtiyat (obligatory precautionary measure). I changed that ihtiyat by referring to another Marja who regarded respecting the order as a "mustahab ihtiyat." I just learned that based on Ayatollah Khamenei’s fatwa, respecting the order is obligatory. What is my duty regarding my prayers and fasts during the past two years?

 

Answer: Previous prayers and fasts are valid.

 

  • Fasting while being certain about invalidity of one of the janabat ghusls

 

71. If a person performs ghusl of janabat three times during Ramadan, for example on the 20th, 25th, and 27th of Ramadan, and later he is certain that one of the ghusls was invalid, what rule applies to their prayers and fasts?

 

Answer: Their fasts are valid. However, based on ihtiyat (precautionary measure) qada’ of prayers is obligatory to make sure they have observed the obligation.

 

 

  • Fasting in the case of doing ghusl with impure (unclean: najis) water

 

72. If someone does ghusl with unclean water during Ramadan and after a week learns that the water was unclean, what directive applies to their fasts and prayers in this period?

 

Answer: Their prayers are invalid, and their qada’ are obligatory. But their fasts are valid.

 

  • The Duty of junub with probability of seminal emission during fasting hours

 

73. A person suffers from the disease of continuous discharge of urine drops for a period of time; that is, after urinating, drops of urine are discharged for an hour or more. At some nights, he becomes junub; and sometimes he gets up an hour before the morning adhan. He thinks it is probable that after that time, some semen is discharged along with urine. What is his duty regarding fasting? What is his duty for being pure by the time of adhan?

 

Answer: If he has done ghusl of janabat, or tayammum at the right time, before the morning adhan, his fast is valid, even if after semen is discharged unintentionally.

 

  

  • Masturbation (Istimna’)

 

 

74. If a fasting person deliberately causes seminal emission, their fast is invalid.

 

  • Kaffarah of istimna’ during fasting hours

 

75. If a person is aware that masturbating invalidates fasting, but they do it deliberately, is total (jam’) kaffarah[4] obligatory on them?

 

Answer: If they masturbate deliberately and semen is discharged, total kaffarah is not obligatory on them. However, a mustahab caution is that they pay a total atonement (kaffarah jam’).

 

  • The Habit of masturbation and ruling in regard to fasting

 

76. A person used to masturbate as a habit during Ramadan and other times, what is the directive with regard to their fasts and prayers?

 

Answer: Masturbation is absolutely forbidden (haram). If it causes seminal emission, ghusl of janabat becomes obligatory, too. If it is done during fasting hours, it is regarded under the ruling for the deliberate breaking of fast by a forbidden act (haram). Fasts and prayers performed in the condition of janabat without ghusl or tayammum are invalid and their qada’ is obligatory.

 

  • Janabat while fasting by seeing an erotic scene

 

77. A fasting person looks at an erotic scene and becomes junub, is his fast invalid by this act?

 

Answer: If he looks at the scene for the purpose of reaching seminal emission, or if he knows that by looking at the scene he will become junub, or if he has this habit, nevertheless, he deliberately looks and becomes junub, the ruling for deliberate janabat applies to him: that is, both qada’ and kaffarah are obligatory on him.

 

  • Janabat while fasting, due to speaking with a non-mahram

 

78. During fasting hours, without any masturbation, only due to a sensation caused by a telephone conversation with a non-mahram (woman), I had seminal discharge. Considering that the conversation wasn’t aimed at pleasure, is my fast invalid or not? In case of invalidity, is kaffarah also obligatory on me?

 

Answer: If seminal emission due to speaking with a woman isn’t a habit for you and semen discharged unintentionally, it does not invalidate your fast and nothing is obligatory on you.

 

  • Ihtilam during fasting hours

 

79. Becoming muhtalim (by discharge of semen during sleep) does not invalidate fasts. If a fasting person knows that by sleeping during the day he will become muhtalim, he is not required to avoid sleeping.

 

80. If a fasting person wakes up at the time of seminal emission, it is not obligatory to prevent it.

 

81. If in Ramadan a person sleeps after the prayer of fajr or noon and becomes muhtalim during sleep unintentionally, what is his duty? Is his fast invalidated?

 

Answer: His fast is valid.

 

  • Ihtilam of the fasting person and waking up after the morning adhan

 

82. If someone sleeps before the morning adhan or after that and becomes junub during sleep, and wakes up after the morning adhan, how much time does he have for performing ghusl?

 

Answer: In the mentioned situation, janabat doesn’t invalidate that day’s fast. But he is obligated to do ghusl for saying prayers, and he can postpone ghusl until the time of prayers.

 

  • Ihtilam after fajr in Ramadan

 

83. If I become muhtalim after fajr prayer in Ramadan, what should I do?

 

Answer: Fast is valid, you are required to do ghusl for performing afternoon prayers.

 

  • Deliberately ascribing something falsely to God or the Messengers (p.b.u.h.) or Ahlulbait (a.s.)[5]

 

84. Deliberately ascribing something falsely to God or the Messengers (p.b.u.h.) or Ahlulbait (a.s.) invalidates fasts, based on precaution (ihtiyat), even if they repent later and confess that they ascribed something falsely. 

 

  • Deliberately ascribing something falsely to Lady Fatima (a.s.)

 

85. Does ascribing something falsely to Lady Fatima (a.s.) invalidate fasting?

 

Answer: Yes, based on obligatory precaution, it invalidates fasting.

 

  • Ascribing Hadith Al-Kisa’ to lady Fatima (a.s.)

 

86. Do you regard Hadith Al-Kisa’, which is ascribed to Lady Fatima (a.s.), a reliable hadith? Is it permissible to ascribe this hadith to Lady Fatima (a.s.) while fasting?

 

Answer: If ascribing it to her is as a narration and via the books that quote it, there is no problem.

 

  • Reciting dua (supplication) in Ramadan while doubting its veracity

 

87. There are duas specifically mentioned for Ramadan--for every day of Ramadan, there is a dua--what is the ruling regarding reciting these duas if we have doubts about their veracity?

 

Answer: If they are recited with the hope of gaining spiritual delight, it is not a problem. 

 

  • Inhaling (gulping down or swallowing) a dense cloud of suspended dust (if it reaches the throat)

 

Based on obligatory precaution, a fasting person must avoid inhaling condensed, suspended dust--like the dust caused by the sweeping of an earthen floor. In addition, the smoke of cigarettes and other tobacco products invalidate fasts, based on obligatory precaution.

 

  • Inhaling dust while fasting

 

88. I work in an iron mine, and I have to enter the mine and work there. When using tools at work, dust enters my mouth. I have the same condition during other months of the year. What is my duty? Are my fasts valid in this situation?

 

Answer: Based on obligatory precaution, inhaling condensed suspended dust while fasting will invalidate the fast and must be avoided. However, if dust enters the mouth and nose but doesn't reach the throat, it doesn’t invalidate fast.

 

  • Fasting for those who are addicted to cigarettes

 

89. I am addicted to cigarettes. During Ramadan (while fasting and avoiding smoking) I cannot help being bad-tempered and aggressive to others. This has caused dissatisfaction of my family members; I also suffer from my difficult situation. What is my duty?

 

Answer: Ramadan fasts are obligatory for you; based on obligatory precaution, you are not permitted to smoke a cigarette while fasting. You should not behave badly with others for no reason.

 

90. Can a cigarette addict who needs to smoke several cigarettes during the day fast? Is their fast valid?

 

Answer: Based on obligatory precaution, while fasting, the smoking any type of tobacco product must be avoided. In case of indispensability [addiction] the obligation for fasting is not eliminated.

 

  • Using tobacco products and narcotics (drugs)

 

91. What directive applies to the usage of tobacco products like cigarettes during fasting hours?

Answer: The obligatory precaution is that the fasting person avoids smoke of all tobacco products as well as narcotics that are absorbed through the nose or by placing under the tongue.

 

  • Usage of ‘Snus’ while fasting

 

92. Does the drug called ‘Snus’ which is made of tobacco and other similar substituents, which is placed for a few minutes under the tongue and is then thrown away, invalidate fast?

 

Answer: If the saliva mixed with Snus is swallowed, it invalidates fast.

 

  • Submerging the head under water

 

93. If a fasting person submerges the head under water deliberately their fast is invalid based on obligatory precaution and qada' of that day's fast is required.

 

94. In the previous rule, there is no difference if, while submerging the head under water, the body is also in water or the body is out of the water and only the head is submerged in water.

 

95. If half of the head is submerged in water and brought out; then the other half of the head is submerged in water, fast is valid.

 

96. If all the head is submerged in water while some hair is out of the water, fast is invalid.

 

97. If a fasting person doubts whether or not they submerged all their head in water, fast is valid.

 

98. If a fasting person falls into water unintentionally and their head is submerged under water their fast is valid, but they must bring out the head immediately. In the same way, if someone forgets that they are fasting and submerges their head under water, their fast is not invalidated; but just as soon as they remember, they must immediately bring their head out of the water.  If a fasting person submerges the head under water deliberately their fast is invalid based on obligatory precaution and qada' of that day's fast is required.

 

  • Submerging the head under mudhaaf water (water mixed with another substance)

 

99. Does submerging the head under mudhaaf[6] water invalidate fast?

Answer: No, it does not invalidate fast, except in rose water, which based on obligatory caution, the head must not be submerged under it.

 

  • Submerging entirely under water with a diving suit

 

100. For the person who submerges underwater while wearing a special suit (like a diving suit) by which their body is not in contact with water, what ruling applies to their fast?

 

Answer: If the suit is attached to their head, their fasts are not valid and based on obligatory precaution, the qada’ of their fasts are required.

 

  • Pouring water on the head

 

101. The gums of a person who is fasting bleed a lot. Does that invalidate his fast? Moreover, is it permissible to pour water over his head with a jug?

 

Answer: The blood coming out of the gums does not invalidate the fast unless it is swallowed. Also one's fast is not affected by pouring water over his head with a jug or something else.

 

  • Irtimasi ghusl (ghusl made by submerging the whole body)due to forgetting, while fasting           

 

102. If a person who is fasting is junub, and he doesn’t realize it until before the noon adhan and he does irtimasi ghusl, is his fast invalidated? If after ghusl he remembers that he did irtimasi ghusl while fasting, is qada’ of that day’s fast obligatory on him?

 

Answer: If the person does irtimasi ghusl because he forgets that he is fasting, his ghusl and fast are valid, and qada’ of the fast is not obligatory on him.  

 

  • An enema using fluid

 

103. An enema using fluid, even if it is done for treatment and necessity, invalidates the fast.

 

  • Using a suppository by women

 

104. There are particular medicines for treatment of some diseases for women (oil suppository) which are placed inside body. Does using it invalidate the fast?

 

Answer: Using these medicines does not invalidate the fast.

 

105. I am a married woman. During Ramadan, I was pregnant, and it was difficult for me to fast. Based on advice, I used suppositories on most days of the month of Ramadan. Am I obligated to do qada’ of these fasts or no?

 

Answer: If the suppositories were solid (not fluid), there is no problem and qada’ of the fasts are not obligatory.

 

  • Vomiting

 

106. Deliberately vomiting while fasting invalidates the fast, even if it is done due to a malady or a similar condition that makes it necessary. However, if it is done by oversight or unintentionally there is no problem [the fast is valid].

 

107. If by burping something comes to mouth, the person must spit it out, and if it is swallowed unintentionally the fast is valid.

 

  • Vomiting due to nausea

 

108. If a person who is fasting vomits due to nausea, what ruling applies to his fast?

 

Answer: If it is unintentional, there is no problem. But if it is deliberate, the fast is invalid.

 

 

Some directives regarding things that invalidate the fast

 

109. Invalidity of fasts by the mentioned things (eating, drinking, etc...) is when these are done deliberately and by choice. But if it happens inadvertently or unintentionally, for example when someone slips and falls into water, submerging, or when someone eats due to forgetting, or if something is poured into his throat by force, their fast is not invalidated.  

 

110. If someone who is fasting has been forced to eat, for example he is told that if he doesn’t eat his wealth or body will be damaged so he eats in order to prevent any harm, his fast is invalidated. 

 

111. If a fasting person does one of the things that invalidate the fast by oversight, then, thinking that his fast is invalidated, deliberately does that thing again, his fast is invalidated.

 

  • Using perfume while fasting

 

112. What directive applies to using perfume while fasting in the month of Ramadan?

 

Answer: Using perfume while fasting is mustahab (supererogatory). But smelling aromatic plants is makruh (reprehensible).

 

  • Injection while fasting

 

  • Having a vaccine injected

 

113. What is the directive for having the hepatitis vaccine injected while fasting? Does it invalidate the fast?

 

Answer: If the injection goes into a muscle, there is no problem.

 

  • Injection of vial and serum

 

114. What is the ruling for the injection of a vial or IV fluids while fasting during the month of Ramadan?

 

Answer: The obligatory caution is that the person who is fasting avoids pro-vitamins and nutritious vials, injection into the vein, and also all types of IV fluids. However, medication vials injected into the muscle and vials used for local anesthesia are not problematic.

 

115. What is the directive for injection of IV fluids while fasting in Ramadan?

 

Answer: Based on obligatory precaution, injection of an IV fluids must be avoided:  if it is for nutritional or supplemental aspects or for medical or similar aspects.

 

  • Injection of blood

 

116. I suffer from thalassemia, and I have to have blood injected into my body. I am fasting now, is my fast valid, or do I have to do qada’ of my fast?

Answer: Injection of blood invalidates the fast, based on obligatory precaution.

 

  • (Causing) bleeding while fasting

 

117. Does causing bleeding during the month of Ramadan invalidate fasts?

Answer: It does not invalidate the fast; but causing bleeding if it causes weakness--through hijjamah (cupping) or other acts--is makruh (reprehensible) for someone who is fasting.

 

  • Rules concerning dentistry

 

  • Treatment or extraction of a tooth while fasting

 

118. Do dentistry works including the pulling of teeth, filling of teeth, root canal and local anesthesia invalidate the fast?

 

Answer: If nothing enters the throat, the fast is valid.

 

  • Bleeding in the mouth while fasting

 

119. If a person who is fasting bleeds in the mouth, does it invalidate his fast?

 

Answer: Bleeding in the mouth does not invalidate the fast. However, it is obligatory to prevent the blood from reaching the throat [the blood must not be swallowed].

 

  • Blood of gums and teeth

 

120. If the gums and mouth bleed during the month of Ramadan, is it obligatory to clean inside the mouth?

 

Answer: Swallowing the blood is not permitted. If while fasting, the blood is deliberately swallowed, the ruling for breaking the fast with a haram applies to it. Washing inside the mouth is not needed.

 

  • The Doubting of swallowing the blood from gums while fasting

 

121.  My gums often bleed and the blood gets mixed with saliva. At times I am not sure whether the saliva that enters my throat is mixed with blood or not. What directive applies to my fast in this situation?

 

Answer: If the blood from your gums gets mixed with saliva in a way that it can no longer be distinguished, then the saliva is pure [tahir] and can be swallowed. If you are not sure whether the saliva is mixed with blood or not, it can still be swallowed without affecting the correctness of the fast.

 

  • Use of dental braces

 

122. What is the ruling for using removable dental braces while fasting?

 

Answer: There is no problem.


[1] The age when one is religiously obliged to observe the rules of Islam.

[2]   Seminal discharge while sleeping; wet dream

[3] A Muslim who has reached the age and meets the conditions of carrying out religious obligations and avoiding prohibitions.

[4] The total atonement (Kaffarah Jam’) requires the three types of kaffarahs to be done all together. The three types of kaffarah are emancipation of a slave, fasting for two consecutive months, and feeding 60 people in need.

[5] i.e. If he/she speaks or writes that God or the Messenger of God said something or ordered some other thing while he/she is aware that it is not true.

[6] Water that is mixed with other substances in a way that commonly it is not regarded as water anymore.

Tags

  • donation
  • fasting
  • Fatwa
  • fiqh
  • Islam
  • Ramadan
  • religion

Comments

  • 2018-06-03 16:52
    As a new Muslim this is helpful share more on Islam for new Muslims thanks
  • 2018-06-04 14:39
    Assalam alaykum. I basically belong to a Sunni family. My father in 1980 after deep studies became Shia and from that time majority of my uncles are of this faith. my father was under Ayatullah khoei’s taqlid as his guide aur marhoom aalam deen was in his taqlid. We all followed our father that’s ayatullah khoei and his tauzih ul masail even though ayatuulah khoei died when I was just 2 yrs old. And we all are in taqaiya till date. But now when some issues arise we have to follow some mujtahud. So if started following ayataullah Sistani without studying any mujtahid just bcoz saw many following him. But now I have started studies also decided to leave taqaiya and now if I find you as the best marajae at present in the world. So my question is can I leave the taqlid of ayatollah Sistani and come under ur taqlid ? As I have read that once u have chosen one taqlid then u can’t change the taqlid till ur marajae is alive. Plz answer if I can change taqlid from ayatullah Sistani to you.
  • 2018-06-04 17:44
    JAZZAKALLAH. Also Do this for others like Namaz etc .
  • 2018-06-05 15:25
    What's the rule regarding one taking ARV drugs ( for HIV-AIDS) not able to fast due to heavy drug taking?
  • 2018-06-13 09:34
    so useful
  • 2018-06-17 04:18
    would have liked to see more on backbiting and arguing how that breaks fasts. mostly mentions of stuffs that is so personal.
  • 2018-06-24 22:43
    wish i had this at the start of ramadan. would have saved me some trouble.

Comment